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January1771 forced deportation and Murder by Catherine the Second :: Baikal Lake Ancestry 1990Viktor Tsoi ::Goryo Saram고려인 - 연해주 YuhnHehJoo Providence, Baikal Lake :: Remembrance is REDEMPTION:: 니콜라스 트리고[ Nicolas Trigault, 금니각( 갏 尼 閣), 1577~ 1628]


Catherine II of Russia, also known as Catherine the Great whom ordered January1771deaths of Kalmyks, was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67. Catherine's father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt,[2] but held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as Governor of the city of Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland). Born Sophia Augusta Fredericka (German: Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, nicknamed "Figchen") in StettinPomerania, two of her first cousins became Kings of SwedenGustav III and Charles XIII.[3] In accordance with the custom then prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Catherine's childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm: "I see nothing of interest in it."[4] Although Catherine was born a princess, her family had very little money. Catherine's rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives who were both wealthy nobles and royal relationsProfile portrait of Catherine II by Fedor Rokotov (1763, Tretyakov gallery).jpg
BornMay 2, 1729, Szczecin, Poland
SpousePeter III of Russia (m. 1745–1762)

Jan1771Deaths ordered by CatherineII born in Prussia married into Russian Monarchy;

The Empress Catherine the Great ordered the Russian army, Bashkirs and Kazakhs to exterminate all migrants and Catherine the Great abolished the Kalmyk Khanate.The Kyrgyzs attacked them near Balkhash Lake. About 100,000-150,000 Kalmyks who settled on the west bank of the Volga River couldn't cross the river because the river didn't freeze in the winter of 1771 and Catherine the Great executed influential nobles of them;

By the early 18th century, there were approximately 300–350,000 Kalmyks and 15,000,000 Russians.[12] After the death of Ayuka Khan in 1724, the political situation among the Kalmyks became unstable as various factions sought to be recognized as Khan. The Russian Empire also gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks used to roam and feed their livestock. In addition, the Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, thereby diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church, by contrast, pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. By the mid-18th century, Kalmyks were increasingly disillusioned with settler encroachment and interference in its internal affairs.
In January 1771 the oppression of Tsarist administration forced the larger part of Kalmyks (33 thousand households, or approximately 170,000–200,000 people) to migrate to Dzungaria.[13] [14][15] Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson of Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria, and restore the Dzungar Khanate and Mongolian independence.[16]As C.D Barkman notes, "It is quite clear that the Torghuts had not intended to surrender the Chinese, but had hoped to lead an independent existence in Dzungaria".[17]
Ubashi sent 30,000 cavalry in the first year of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) to gain weaponry before the migration. The 8th Dalai Lama was contacted to request his blessing and to set the date of departure. After consulting the astrological chart, he set a return date, but at the moment of departure, the weakening of the ice on the Volga River permitted only those Kalmyks (about 200,000 people) on the eastern bank to leave. Those 100–150,000 people on the western bank were forced to stay behind and Catherine the Great executed influential nobles from among them.[16]
Approximately five-sixths of the Torghut followed Ubashi Khan. Most of the Khoshut, Choros and Khoid also accompanied the Torghut on their journey to Dzungaria. The Dörbet Oirat, in contrast, elected not to go at all.
Catherine the Great ordered the Russian army, Bashkirs and Kazakhs to exterminate all migrants.[16][18][19] After failing to stop the flight, Catherine abolished the Kalmyk Khanate, transferring all governmental powers to the governor of Astrakhan. The title of Khan was abolished. The highest native governing office remaining was the Vice-Khan, who also was recognized by the government as the highest ranking Kalmyk prince. By appointing the Vice-Khan, the Russian Empire was now permanently the decisive force in Kalmyk government and affairs.
After seven months of travel, only one-third (66,073)[16] of the original group reached Balkhash Lake, the western border of Qing China.[20] This migration became the topic of The Revolt of the Tartars, by Thomas De Quincey.
The Qing transmigrated the Kalmyks to five different areas to prevent their revolt and influential leaders of the Kalmyks soon died. The migrant Kalmyks became known as Torghut in Qing China. The Torghut were coerced by the Qing into giving up their nomadic lifestyle and to take up sedentary agriculture instead as part of a deliberate policy by the Qing to enfeeble them.