8/18/16

January1771 forced deportation and Murder by Catherine the Second :: Baikal Lake Ancestry 1990Viktor Tsoi ::Goryo Saram고려인 - 연해주 YuhnHehJoo Providence, Baikal Lake :: Remembrance is REDEMPTION:: 니콜라스 트리고[ Nicolas Trigault, 금니각( 갏 尼 閣), 1577~ 1628]


Catherine II of Russia, also known as Catherine the Great whom ordered January1771deaths of Kalmyks, was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67. Catherine's father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt,[2] but held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as Governor of the city of Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland). Born Sophia Augusta Fredericka (German: Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, nicknamed "Figchen") in StettinPomerania, two of her first cousins became Kings of SwedenGustav III and Charles XIII.[3] In accordance with the custom then prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Catherine's childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm: "I see nothing of interest in it."[4] Although Catherine was born a princess, her family had very little money. Catherine's rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives who were both wealthy nobles and royal relationsProfile portrait of Catherine II by Fedor Rokotov (1763, Tretyakov gallery).jpg
BornMay 2, 1729, Szczecin, Poland
SpousePeter III of Russia (m. 1745–1762)

Jan1771Deaths ordered by CatherineII born in Prussia married into Russian Monarchy;

The Empress Catherine the Great ordered the Russian army, Bashkirs and Kazakhs to exterminate all migrants and Catherine the Great abolished the Kalmyk Khanate.The Kyrgyzs attacked them near Balkhash Lake. About 100,000-150,000 Kalmyks who settled on the west bank of the Volga River couldn't cross the river because the river didn't freeze in the winter of 1771 and Catherine the Great executed influential nobles of them;

By the early 18th century, there were approximately 300–350,000 Kalmyks and 15,000,000 Russians.[12] After the death of Ayuka Khan in 1724, the political situation among the Kalmyks became unstable as various factions sought to be recognized as Khan. The Russian Empire also gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks used to roam and feed their livestock. In addition, the Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, thereby diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church, by contrast, pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. By the mid-18th century, Kalmyks were increasingly disillusioned with settler encroachment and interference in its internal affairs.
In January 1771 the oppression of Tsarist administration forced the larger part of Kalmyks (33 thousand households, or approximately 170,000–200,000 people) to migrate to Dzungaria.[13] [14][15] Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson of Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria, and restore the Dzungar Khanate and Mongolian independence.[16]As C.D Barkman notes, "It is quite clear that the Torghuts had not intended to surrender the Chinese, but had hoped to lead an independent existence in Dzungaria".[17]
Ubashi sent 30,000 cavalry in the first year of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) to gain weaponry before the migration. The 8th Dalai Lama was contacted to request his blessing and to set the date of departure. After consulting the astrological chart, he set a return date, but at the moment of departure, the weakening of the ice on the Volga River permitted only those Kalmyks (about 200,000 people) on the eastern bank to leave. Those 100–150,000 people on the western bank were forced to stay behind and Catherine the Great executed influential nobles from among them.[16]
Approximately five-sixths of the Torghut followed Ubashi Khan. Most of the Khoshut, Choros and Khoid also accompanied the Torghut on their journey to Dzungaria. The Dörbet Oirat, in contrast, elected not to go at all.
Catherine the Great ordered the Russian army, Bashkirs and Kazakhs to exterminate all migrants.[16][18][19] After failing to stop the flight, Catherine abolished the Kalmyk Khanate, transferring all governmental powers to the governor of Astrakhan. The title of Khan was abolished. The highest native governing office remaining was the Vice-Khan, who also was recognized by the government as the highest ranking Kalmyk prince. By appointing the Vice-Khan, the Russian Empire was now permanently the decisive force in Kalmyk government and affairs.
After seven months of travel, only one-third (66,073)[16] of the original group reached Balkhash Lake, the western border of Qing China.[20] This migration became the topic of The Revolt of the Tartars, by Thomas De Quincey.
The Qing transmigrated the Kalmyks to five different areas to prevent their revolt and influential leaders of the Kalmyks soon died. The migrant Kalmyks became known as Torghut in Qing China. The Torghut were coerced by the Qing into giving up their nomadic lifestyle and to take up sedentary agriculture instead as part of a deliberate policy by the Qing to enfeeble them.





Jewish Autonomous Oblast - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Autonomous_Oblast

Wikipedia
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) in the .... planted there by tsarist authorities, Koreans, Kazakhs, and a primitive tribe called the Tungus. ..... up ^ Michael Walsh George Koval: Atomic Spy Unmasked Smithsonian (magazine) May 2009; Jump up ^ Arthur Rosen, [www.

History of the Jews in South Korea - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_South_Korea

Wikipedia
The first sizable Jewish presence in Korea was during the Korean War, when hundreds of Jewishsoldiers participated in the American-led effort to repel a ...


Nicolas Trigault 
트리고
선교사 니콜라스 트리고[ Nicolas Trigault, 금니각( 갏 尼 閣), 1577~ 1628] 

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네이버 책

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책 본문

    • 「중국의 과학문명」본문 中 2 예수회 선교사의 활약 - 165페이지
      [과학/공학] 야부우치 기요시 저  전상운 역  민음사  1997.02.15.
      책도 편역되었다.17세기 초엽에 중국에서 선교했던 니콜라스트리고`Nicolas Trigault(金尼閣)는 한때 유럽에 돌아가서 중국에서의 선교에 대하여 설명하고 나서, 돌아오는 길에 7,000부에 달하는 유럽 서적을 가지고 왔다. 중국인...
    • 「인물과학사」본문 中 거중기 제작에 영향 미친... - 351페이지
      [과학/공학] 박성래 저  책과함께  2011.11.30.
      때마침 이미 중국에서 활동 중이던 예수회 선교사 니콜라스 트리고[ Nicolas Trigault, 금니각( 갏 尼 閣), 1577~ 1628] 가 과학자 자격이 있는 선교사를 중국에 데려가기 위해 유럽을 방문했다. 트리고는 프랑스 출신 선교사로...

Nicolas Trigault - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Trigault

Wikipedia
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China. He was also known by his latinised name Trigautius or Trigaultius, and his ...
Life and work · ‎Publications · ‎See also · ‎References


Nicolas Trigault | Beyond Ricci

ricci.bc.edu/people/nicolas-trigault

Image Credit: "Peter Paul Rubens: Portrait of Nicolas Trigault in Chinese Costume (1999.222)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan ...

Nicolas Trigault
MissionaryImage result for nicolas trigault

Looking East: Rubens's Encounter with Asia (Getty Center Exhibitions)

www.getty.edu › Museum Home › Current Exhibitions

Getty Center
Peter Paul Rubens's Man in Korean Costume has been considered noteworthy ... Portrait of Nicolas Trigault in Chinese Costume, 1617, Peter Paul Rubens.

Costume Drama: Rubens and Korea | ARTnews

www.artnews.com/2013/03/06/rubens-and-korea/

ARTnews
Mar 6, 2013 - Peter Paul Rubens, Man in Korean Costume, ca. ... “Looking East” includes an image of missionary Nicolas Trigault wearing a similar, though ...

From the Land of Speculation | 'Looking East: Rubens's Encounter ...

www.wsj.com/.../SB1000142412788732341530457836864339...
The Wall Street Journal
Apr 2, 2013 - Along with other scholars, she links "Man in Korean Costume" instead to Rubens's portrayals of Nicolas Trigault and other Jesuit missionaries ...

Nicolas Trigault - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Trigault

Wikipedia
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China. He was also known by his latinised name Trigautius or Trigaultius, and his ...

[PDF]Nicolas Trigault, SJ - Metropolitan Museum of Art

https://www.metmuseum.org/.../1513105.pdf.bannered.p...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
Nicolas Trigault, SJ: A Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens. ANNE-MARIE LOGAN AND .... one the missionary is portrayed in Korean costume. Of the three Chinese ...

Peter Paul Rubens | Portrait of Nicolas Trigault in Chinese Costume ...

metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628), depicted here in a luminous Chinese-style silk robe, was part of the Jesuit mission to China from 1610 until his death. Rubens ...

The Jesuit Nicolas Trigault in Chinese Costume | The Frick Collection

www.frick.org/exhibitions/van_dyck/8

Frick Collection
This magnificent drawing represents Nicolas Trigault, a Flemish Jesuit missionary to ... His costume combines a Korean cap and the robe of a Chinese scholar, ...

Nicolas Trigault was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China. He was also known by his latinised name Trigautius or Trigaultius, and his Chinese name Jin Nige. Wikipedia
BornMarch 3, 1577, Douai, France
DiedNovember 14, 1628, Hangzhou, China/ JOSEON KOREA


http://www.sino-judaic.org/index.php?page=kaifeng_jews_history








나라 조,찌를 조 단어장 추가
1. 나라의 이름 2. 조나라(--) 3. 성()의 하나 4. 긴 모양 5. 걸음걸이의 느린 모양 6. 찌르다 7. 빠르다, 날쌔다 8. 흔들다 9. 땅을 파다 10. 작다 11. 넘다 









베풀 장 단어장 추가
1. 베풀다(일을 차리어 벌이다, 도와주어서 혜택을 받게 하다) 2. 어떤 일을 벌이다 3. 기세()가 오르다 4. 세게 하다, 성()하게 하다 5. 넓히다, 크게 하다 6. 크게 떠벌이다 7. 내밀다, 드러내다








오얏 리,오얏 이,성씨 리,성씨 이 단어장 추가
1. 오얏나무(자두나무) 2. 오얏(자두) 3. 심부름꾼 4. 다스리는 벼슬아치 5. 도리() 6. 별 이름 7. 옥관() 8. 성()의 하나








성씨 김,쇠 금 단어장 추가
1. 성()의 하나 a. 쇠 (금) b. 금 (금) c. 돈, 화폐() (금) d. 금나라(--) (금) e. 누른빛 (금) f. 귀하다(--) (금)









달 감 단어장 추가
1. 달다 2. 달게 여기다 3. 맛좋다 4. 익다 5. 만족하다(滿--) 6. 들어서 기분() 좋다 7. 느리다 8. 느슨하다 9. 간사하다(--: 거짓으로 남의 비위를 맞추는 태도가 있다)
높을 고 단어장 추가
1. 높다 2. 뛰어나다 3. 크다 4. 고상하다(--) 5. 존경하다(--) 6. 멀다 7. 깊다 8. 비싸다 9. 뽐내다 10. 높이, 고도() 11. 위, 윗 12. 높은 곳 13. 높은 자리 14. 위엄()









돌 석 단어장 추가
1. 돌 2. 섬(10말. 용량 단위) 3. 돌바늘 4. 돌비석(-) 5. 돌팔매 6. 숫돌(연장을 갈아 날을 세우는 데 쓰는 돌) 7. 무게의 단위() 8. 돌로 만든 악기() 9. 저울








쑥 애,다스릴 예 단어장 추가
1. 쑥, 약쑥 2. 미모() 3. 푸른빛 4. 늙은이 5. 햇수, 나이 6. 남색(: 비역. 사내끼리 성교하듯이 하는 짓) 7. 늙다 8. 다하다, 끝나다 9. 갚다, 보답하다(--) 10. 예쁘다

During the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), a Ming emperor conferred seven surnames upon the Jews, by which they are identifiable today: Ai (艾 ), Shi (石), Gao (高), Gan (甘), Jin (金/), Li (李), Zhang (張), and Zhao (趙). Interestingly, two of these, Jin and Shi, are the equivalent of common Jewish names in the west: Gold <Jin (金/)> and Stone(Shi (石)).

During the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), a Ming emperor conferred eight surnames upon the Jews, by which they are identifiable today: Ai, Shi, Gao, Gan, Jin, Li,Zhang, and Zhao. By the beginning of the 20th century one of these Kaifeng clans, the Zhang, had largely converted to Islam.